There is no freedom of choice for humans,
if it has been taken away from them at the beginning.
Breast-feeding is not a choice,
but an obligation to the choice.
Give your child the freedom of choice

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Monday, February 26, 2007

When my baby can eat citrus fruits?(orange, grapefruit & etc)

Artikel 1

Citrus fruits -- such as oranges, grapefruits, and tangerines -- are very acidic and can cause stomach upset or diarrhea in babies. That's why doctors recommend that you wait until your child is at least 12 months old to offer any citrus fruits or juices. What's so special about turning 1? That's the age when most babies' digestive system is fairly developed and can handle the acid in these fruits without problems.

As with any juice, dietitians recommend diluting orange juice so it's at least one part water to three parts juice. Diluting the juice makes it easier on your child's stomach and reduces the total amount of juice your child drinks. Because drinking too much juice of any kind has been linked to both obesity and malnourishment in children, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends the following:

  • No juice at all before 6 months. No citrus juice before 12 months.
  • When offering juice to your baby, serve it in a cup, not a bottle, to discourage prolonged sipping.. Juice can easily pool around your child's teeth, and the sugar in juice can lead to tooth decay.
  • Children from 1 to 6 years old should drink no more than 4 to 6 ounces of juice a day.
  • When buying juice, make sure it's 100 percent real fruit juice. Many fruit drinks contain only small amounts of real fruit juice.

"Before you offer your child a piece of orange, make sure to pick out any seeds, and peel all the rind and membrane off, as they are difficult to chew and can cause a toddler to gag or choke," says Susan Moores, a registered dietitian in St. Paul, Minnesota, and a spokeswoman for the American Dietetic Association. And until your baby is at least 2 years old and can chew his food well, always cut citrus fruits into bite-size pieces. Larger pieces may seem soft and easy to chew, but they're slippery and can inadvertently slide down your child's throat and cause choking.

Artikel 2


My sister gave her baby grapefruit and orange wedges to chew on. Is this a safe snack for babies?


It is best to hold off on introducing citrus fruits until your baby is at least one year old. Citrus fruits commonly cause allergies or food-sensitivity reactions, such as a diaper rash.

Because of the potential for an allergic reaction, when you do introduce oranges, grapefruits and other citrus foods, do so gradually, beginning with small amounts served over the course of several days. Monitor your child for symptoms such as hives, rashes or wheezing. If you think your child is allergic, avoid all citrus fruits including tomatoes and strawberries. Hold off on citrus juices as well.

Young children also have problems eating citrus fruits due to the membrane. Peeling away the stubborn membrane can be a laborious task. You may find that serving canned mandarin oranges is the best first citrus to introduce because the membranes are tender and more easily chewed.

Once your child is past the critical age for introducing potentially allergenic food, adding citrus as a snack is great idea. Citrus fruits are full of vitamin C. There is no need to worry that your baby can't get enough vitamin C without them. There are plenty of other, baby-friendly foods that provide vitamin C. Some delicious, vitamin C-rich foods that baby can enjoy include baked potatoes, tender cooked broccoli, spinach and cabbage. Many babies enjoy ripe papaya or cantaloupe, both of which are high in vitamin C and A. Under the age of one, a baby needs 35 milligrams of vitamin C each day.

Today's articles

Age by age guide to feed your baby

Baby& citrus fruit 1

Baby & citrus fruits 2

Friday, February 23, 2007

Untu ibu-ibu yang bekerja

Persediaan ibu yang bekerja untuk menceburkan diri dalam ‘bidang penyusuan susu ibu sepenuhnya”.

1. Keazaman, kesungguhan, semangat, sokongan dan kerajinan.

2. Bila perlu mula mengepam?

2 minggu sebelum mula bekerja semula.

Saya dahulu, tidak berilmu maka saya mulakan 3 hari sebelum bekerja. Terkocoh-kocoh juga dibuatnya, Alhamdulillah sempat.

Mulakan mengepam dua minggu sebelum masuk bekerja ataupun apabila susu sudah benar-benar ‘established’.

3. Perkakas dan peralatan yang diperlukan.

l ‘breast pump’. Rujuk entry pump.

l bekas menyimpan susu yang diperah, botol susu ataupun ‘disposable liner’

l Bekas untuk membawa/menyimpan susu perahan – ‘cooler bag’

l Tempat mengepam di tempat kerja

4. Jangka hayat susu

l Susu yang baru diperah boleh tahan 8 jam dalam suhu bilik. Namun kita digalakkan menyimpan susu perahan di dalam cooler ataupun fridge. Saya simpan susu perahan di dalam cooler bag sahaja, Tak tumpang fridge pejabat.

l Susu perahan jika disimpan di dalam ruangan sejuk peti ais boleh tahan 48 jam. Ada juga pendapat/kajian menyatakan tahan sampai 7 hari, saya hanya simpan di ruangan sejuk paling lama 48jam.

l Susu perahan jika disimpan di dalam ruangan beku (freezer), peti ais satu pintu boleh tahan 2 minggu.

l Susu perahan jika disimpan di dalam ruangan beku (freezer), peti ais dua pintu boleh tahan selama 3 bulan.

l Susu perahan jika disimpan di dalam deep freezer boleh tahan sampai 6 bulan.

l Susu perahan yang telah dibekukan, kemudian telah dicarkan tidak boleh dibekukan semula

l Susu perahan yang telah dipanaskan harus diberi kepada bayi dalam masa 1-2 jam. Jika anda telah memanaskan lebih dari tempoh ini, sila rasa dahulu susu tersebut sebelum memberi bayi anda minum.

l Susu lebihan bayi minum tidak boleh dimasukkan semula ke dalam fridge, harus dihabiskan atau dibuang.

l Susu beku yang telah dicairkan boleh tahan 2 hari jika disimpan di dalam fridge.(bahagian sejuk). Jika anda was-was rasa dahulu susu tersebut sebelum diberi kepada bayi anda.

5. Cara memanaskan susu perahan.

a) Susu beku- Cairkan terlebih dahulu susu beku.

Cara mencairkannya- dibiarkan semalaman susu beku di ruangan sejuk peti ais atau pun direndam dengan air sejuk di dalam suhu bilik. Setelah susu mencair direndam dengan air suam/panas.

b) Susu cair- Direndam di dalam air suam/panas

Jangan sekali-kali memasak atau mendidihkan susu perahan kerana akan memusnahkan zat-zat penting di dalam susu.

Jangan ‘microwave’kan susu perahan.

6. Menyimpan susu di tempat kerja.

Anda boleh menyimpan susu anda di dalam fridge pejabat anda atau di dalam cooler bag anda.

7. Cooler bag.- saya menggunakan cooler bag untuk menyimpan dan membawa susu pulang ke rumah dan membawa susu ke Taska. Anda juga boleh gunakan ‘ice box’ atau apa sahaja bekas yang boleh mengekalkan suhu sejuk.

8. Gunakan chiller-ice brite/ais batu/techni ice untuk memastikan suhu cooler bag/ice box anda sejuk. Rujuk entry techni ice.

p/s: Weekend ni saya upload gambar-gambar (cooler bag, pump, techni ice, ice brite, etc)

Kacip Fatimah

What is Kacip Fatimah?
Kacip Fatimah is scientifically known as Labisia pothoina. It is perhaps one of the most sought after female tonic herb taken from the Malaysian rainforest. The Malay women have been using it for many generations to induce and facilitate childbirth as well as a post-partum medicine (Burkill, 1935). It is also well known to offer numerous other benefits for personal hygiene and well-being of women not only after delivery but even in everyday life.

The 9 benefits of Kacip Fatimah
1. Increases libido and treat female ailments relating to the reproductive system and well-being.
2. It is anti-dysmenorrhoea which helps in cleansing and avoiding difficult and painful menstruation.
3. Used effectively to treat disorders in the reproductive system like dysentery and gonorrhoea.
4. It helps balance your hormones and overcome postnatal depression such as loss of interest in intimacy as well as promotes strength and vitality to improve intimacy.
5. Helps to firm and tone the abdominal muscles making you look slimmer.
6. It is anti-flatulence which helps in eliminating excessive gas in the body.
7. It boosts your body resistance and thereby helps to relieve cold.
8. It improves blood circulation and therefore relieves rheumatic pains in joints and muscles.
9. It has also been known to overcome constipation and restore damaged hair, besides a whole lot of other benefits.

Extra care for pregnant women and women who are breastfeeding. Because of its cleansing effect this herb is not suitable for pregnant women or women who plan to breastfeed their babies.

Monday, February 12, 2007

What are normal bowel movements for formula-fed babies?

A: Parents spend a lot of time wondering and worrying about whether their infant's bowel movements are "normal." In fact, there's really no such thing. Babies' bowel habits are as individual as they are, and over time you'll get to know your baby's routine.

That said, there is a typical pattern to look for in any baby's bowel habits. During the first few days of life, your baby will pass meconium, the thick, black or dark green substance that was in his intestines before he was born.
Once the meconium has passed, the bowel movements of a formula-fed baby are typically yellow, tan, brown, or green. As long as there isn't blood in the stool, any color is normal.

A formula-fed baby's stool is a little bit firmer than a breastfed baby's, about the consistency of peanut butter. If it's much harder than that, it may be a sign of constipation, and you should tell your pediatrician. If you're worried about constipation and your baby is younger than 4 months old, don't feed him anything other than formula or breast milk without checking with your pediatrician first. You may inadvertently deprive your baby of essential nutrients if you feed him a pediatric electrolyte solution, water, or juice. Babies over 4 months can have a few ounces of water a day, but if you think he's constipated, you should talk with your pediatrician about how best to solve the problem.

Another thing to keep in mind is that around 1 to 2 months of age, many babies go from having several bowel movements a day to going several days between bowel movements. This, too, is perfectly normal. It's not how often a baby moves his bowels, but how hard the stool is once it's passed that's cause for concern. When you introduce cereal and other solids to your baby's diet, you can expect dramatic changes in the odor, color, consistency, and frequency of his bowel movements depending on what he's eating

Breastfed baby's stool color

Q:What’s the normal color of breastfeeding baby’s bowel movement?

A:That depends on how old your baby is. In the first few days of life, your baby’s stool should be dark green to black. This means your baby is passing meconium, a tarry substance made up of all her bowels have accumulated during nine months in the womb.

Colostrum, the “first milk,” helps your baby pass these stools. The sooner you put your baby to the breast, the quicker colostrum gets into her system. Colostrum acts like a laxative and helps push the meconium out of your baby’s bowels.

Your baby will have these stools until your milk comes in — so the sooner and more frequently you breastfeed, the quicker the meconium clears from her system.

Since meconium buildup can cause jaundice, it’s important to breastfeed at least ten to 12 times in 24 hours to clear it out of your baby’s system. You should be concerned if your baby has meconium stools for longer than three days. If your baby sleeps a lot, you should pump and hand- or finger-feed the colostrum to your baby to get her digestive tract working properly.

After the colostrum phase, your milk changes and bowel movements become brown in color, less sticky, and easier to wipe off the skin. As your milk becomes more plentiful, the stools finally transition from yellow-green to yellow. Nursing your baby frequently causes the stools to change color more quickly. Plus, the more you nurse, the quicker your milk changes from colostrum to mature milk. Once the stools turn yellow and have a seedy quality, they should stay that way as long as your baby is exclusively breastfed.

When your baby has a bowel movement, look for stools that are loose in texture, with the consistency of pea soup. You may even notice small cottage cheese-type curds. The odor should be mild and not unpleasant. If you notice a succession of watery green stools, your baby may be consuming more foremilk than hindmilk. If you make sure she finishes nursing on the first breast before switching, she’ll get more of the high-calorie hindmilk and produce a more yellowish stool as a result.

A watery stool also could indicate a sensitivity to a certain food you’re eating or medication you’re taking. A good first step for determining whether that’s the case is to eliminate all dairy products such as milk, cheese, and yogurt from your diet for at least three weeks. If the bowel movements change, you’ll know it was the dairy. Add dairy back slowly to your diet, starting with the hardest cheeses. If your baby’s stools turn watery again, you’ll have to find other sources of calcium and protein for your diet.

Monday, February 5, 2007

Panduan pemakanan

Panduan pemakanan untuk bayi baru lahir hingga 6 bulan

Pemakanan yang paling sempurna bagi bayi yang baru lahir hingga 6 bulan adalah susu ibu sahaja. Makanan atau minuman lain termasuk air kosong tidak diperlukan. Pemberian makanan atau minuman ini boleh memudaratkan bayi.

Kepentingan kandungan susu ibu:

a. Mengandungi zat makanan dan vitamin yang mencukupi mengikut keperluan bayi.

b. Mudah dihadam dan digunkan dengn berkesan.

c. Melindungi bayi dari penyakit

d. Mengandungi antibody dan bahan-bahan pelindung dari penyakit.

e. Mengandungi faktor tumbesaran.

f. Tiada pencemaran

g. Mengandungi enzim

h. Zat dan kandungan susu ibu berubah mengikut keperluan bayi.

Susukan bayi dengan kerap

Penyusuan yang kerap boleh memastikan bekalan susu yang mencukupi.

Kekerapan penyusuan:

  1. Susukan bayi dengan kerap mengikut kemahuannnya ‘on demand’.
  2. Menyusu kerap di sebelah malam
  3. Sentiasa bersama bayi bagi membolehkan menyusukannya dengan kerap.
  4. Bayi kecil yang tidur lebih dari 2-3 jam harus dikejutkan untuk disusukan.

Tanda bayi mendapat cukup susu

  1. Penyusuan kerap
  2. Kenaikkan berat badan yang memuaskan
  3. Kencing lebih dari 6 kali/hari
  4. Kerap membuang air besar adalah normal.
  5. Bayi puas, ceria, otot dan kulit bayi juga sihat
  6. Dengar bayi menelan
  7. Payudara penuh sebelum menyusu dan ‘kosong’ selepas menyusu.

Jangan campur penyusuan susu ibu dengan air kosong atau susu formula

Bayi tidak akan mendapat kebaikan susu ibu sepenuhnya jika diberi atau minuman lain kerana:

a. Bayi akan kurang kerap menyusu. Ini akan menyebabkan kurang penghasilan susu oleh ibu. Akibatnya bayi kurang mendapat zat makanan dan bahan – bahan pelindung penyakit.

b. Bahan pelindungan penyakit terkandung di dalam susu ibu yang bertindak menyalut usus bayi. Air kosong atau susu formula akan menghakis salutan tersebut. Bayti tidak akan mendapat perlindungan.

c. Bayi mudah terdedah kepada alahan dan pencemaran yang terdapat di dalam air kosong dan susu formula.

Panduan memberi makanan pelengkap (solid food)

Beri bayi makanan pelengkap apabila bayi anda sudah berumur 6 bulan ke atas.

Pada umur 6 bulan bayi perlukan makanan lain selain dari susu ibu. Teruskan penyusuan susu ibu dengan kerap siang dan malam. Makanan pelengkap yang seimbang diberi sebagai tambahan.

Apabila bayi berusia 6 bulan, ibu-ibu perlu bersedia untuk memberi makanan pelengkap kepada bayi mereka. Makanan pelengkap merupakan makanan yang diberi sebagai makanan tambahan kepada susu ibu. Jangan memulakan pemberian makanan pelengkap yang terlalu awal (kurang 6 bulan) atau terlalu lambat (lebih 6 bulan).

Mengapa tidak digalakkan memberi makanan pelengkap terlalu awal:

a. Sistem pencernaan dan penyerapan bayi berumur kurang dari 6 bulan belum matang.

b. Susu ibu adalah makanan utama untuk bayi. Pemberian makanan pepejal terlalu awal boleh mengurangkan pengambilan susu oleh bayi kerana lebih kenyang dengan makanan pejal.

c. Makanan yang diberikan sebagai gentian susu ibu selalunya bubur yang cair dan sup memandangkan ia mudah dimakan oleh bayi. Makanan ini mengenyangkan tetapi kurang nutrient daripada susu ibu dan oleh itu keperluan bayi tersebut tidak dapat dipenuhi.

d. Bahan makanan lain boleh mengurangkan penyerapan nutrient di dalam susu ibu seperti zat besi.

e. Bayi mudah mendapat alahan (alergi).

Mengapa makan pelengkap perlu diberi?

a. Menambah bekalan tenaga.

b. Membekalkan zat makanan

c. Memperkenalkan anak-anak kepada pelbagai jenis makanan dan raasa.

d. Memenuhi keperluan proses perkembangan dan kemalangan.

Panduan memberi makanan pelengkap

a. Berikan susu terlebih dahulu sebelum memberi bayi makanan pelengkap. Ini akan membolehkan ibu menghasilkan cukup susu bagi jangkamasa yang lebih lama.

b. Sediakan hidangan yang seimbang. Hidangan seimbang bagi bayi perlu mengandungi bahan dari 5 kumpulan makanan iaitu kumpulan bijirin dan ubi-ubian, kumpulan ikan, daging dan telur, kumpulan sayur dan buah serta kumpulan minyak dan lemak.

c. Pelbagai makanan bayi. Berikan bayi pelbagai jenis makanan agar dapat semua zat yang diperlukan. Ini juga dapat mengajar bayi kepelbagaian rasa dan warna.

d. Tambahkan minyak atau lemak di dalam makanan bayi. Bayi perlukan banyak tenaga untuk tumbesaran. Minyak atau lemak seperti marjerin atau mentega dapat menambahkan kandungan tenaga di dalam hidangan.

e. Tidak perlu tambah garam, gula atau bahan perasa di dalam makanan. Beri peluang untuk bayi menikmati rasa semulajadi makanan.

f. Sediakan makanan mengikut tekstur yang sesuai untuk umur. Tekstur makana hendaklah disediakan mengikut kebolehan bayi iaitu:

i. 6 bulan - dikisar

ii. 7 – 9 bulan - dilecek

iii. 10 - 12 bulan - dicincang

g. Mulakan dengan sedikit dan tambahkan kuantiti makanan secara beransur – ansur mengikut peringkat umur.

h. Jadikan masa makan sebagai masa yang menyeronokkan. Jangan paksa bayi makan jika dia belum bersedia atau tidak mahu makan.